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2020-2021 学年初三英语知识点归纳及题型专练:重点考点归纳
一、by
①Last weekend,my parents went to London by air.上周末,我的父母乘飞机去了伦敦。
(by+交通工具,表示“通过……;乘……;由……”。)
②Students should go to bed by 22:30 at night.学生们应该在晚上十点半之前上床睡觉。
(by+时间名词,意为“在……之前”。)
③She was drinking orange juice by the swimming pool.她正在游泳池边喝橙汁。
(by+地点名词,意为“在……旁边”,相当于 beside。)
④The book named Old Man and the Sea was written by Hemingway.《老人与海》这本书是海明威写的。
At last,we found out that the window was broken by Tom.最后,我们发现窗户是汤姆打破的。
(用于被动语态,意为“被;由”,引出动作发出者。)
⑤I study English by listening to tapes.我通过听磁带来学习英语。
(by+doing__sth.意为“通过……方式或途径做某事”, 对 by 引导的方式状语提问用 how。)
⑥其他短语:by oneself 独自;by mistake 无意地;by accident 偶然地;by the end of 到……末为止
二、“疑问词+动词不定式” 结构的用法 (九全册 Unit 1 P5)
①How to deal with it(作主语) is still a problem.如何处理它仍然是一个难题。
②The question is which to choose(作表语).问题是选哪一个。
③I don't know where to go on vacation(作宾语).我不知道去哪儿度假。
(疑问词who,what,which等和疑问副词when,where,how等后面跟不定式,构成“疑问词+动词不定式”结构,
在句中作主语、宾语、表语等。)三、感叹句
①What a foggy day (it is)!好大的雾!
(What+a/an+adj.+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!)
②What beautiful flowers__(they are)!多么漂亮的花啊!
(What+adj.+可数名词复数+主语+谓语!)
③What nice weather__(it is)!多好的天气啊!
(What+adj.+不可数名词+主语+谓语!)
④How beautiful these flowers are!这些花多漂亮呀!
How quickly Bob runs!鲍勃跑得多快啊!
(How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!)
注意:究竟用 how 还是用 what/what a/what an,一切以主谓之前的词性为准。主谓之前为形容词/副词 考虑
how,主谓之前为名词考虑 what。
四、辨析 lie 与 lay
①A dog lay in front of the gate yesterday.The dog still lies there now,so the dog has lain there for two days.昨天一
只狗躺在门前。今天这只狗仍然躺在那儿,所以这只狗已经躺在那儿两天了。
(此句中 lie 意为“躺下”,其过去式为 lay,过去分词为 lain,现在分词为 lying。)
②A boy with a group of sheep lied to kind people twice last week.He has already lied to the kind people many
times since last month.People don't believe him,because he is a liar.放羊的男孩上周对善良的人们撒谎了两次。
自从上个月以来,他已经对善良的人们撒谎了很多次。人们不相信他,因为他是个骗子。
(此句中 lie 意为“撒谎”,其过去式为 lied,过去分词为 lied,现在分词为 lying,撒谎者为 liar。)③Look!The hen is laying an egg.And she has laid over 20 eggs.Yesterday she laid a very big egg.看!这只母鸡正
在下蛋。她已经下了 20 个蛋。昨天她下了一个很大的蛋。
(此句中 lay 意为“下蛋;产卵”,其过去式为 laid,过去分词为 laid,现在分词为 laying。)
五、increase
①Travel increases my knowledge of the world.旅行增长我的世界知识。
(此处 increase 为动词,意为“增长;增加”。)
②There is a fast increase in population of China because of the two-child policy.由于二孩政策,中国的人口迅速
增长。
(此处 increase 为名词,指“在某方面的增长”。)
③The price of eggs has increased__to 10 yuan a kilo.鸡蛋的价格已经涨到每公斤 10 元。
(increase to 表示“增加到……”。)
④The population of the town has increased by 5 percent.这个镇的人口增长了 5%.
(increase by 表示“增加了……”。)
六、suggest
①She suggested an__early__start.她建议早点出发。
(suggest+名词,意为“建议某事”。)
②I suggested putting__off the sports meeting.我建议推迟运动会。
(suggest+doing sth.,意为“建议做某事”。)
③She suggested that__the__meeting__shouldn't__be__held__on__Saturday.她提议会议应该在周六举行。(suggest+that 引导的宾语从句,意为“建议某事”后面的宾语为一个句子,且从句要用虚拟语气:(should
+)动词原形。)
④Her pale face suggested bad health.她脸色苍白,看来身体不好。
(suggest 在此句中的意思为“暗示;表明;说明”,其主语通常不是人。)
⑤Can you please give me some suggestions on how to get out of the trouble?你能给我一些关于如何脱离困境
的建议吗?
(suggestion 为可数名词;同义词为 advice,但其为不可数名词。)
当我们身处困境时,应向父母和老师寻求建议。
When we are in trouble,we should ask our parents and teachers for advice/suggestions.
七、influence
①Those friends have a bad influence on her.那些朋友对她有坏的影响。
His father's death has a great influence on him.他父亲的死对他影响很大。
(例句中单词 influence 的词性为名词,意为“影响”;“……对某人有好/坏/巨大的影响”用 have a
good/bad/great influence on sb.。)
②This novel has influenced many young people.这个故事影响了很多年轻人。
What influenced you to take this job?是什么影响你选择了这份工作?
(例句中单词 influence 的词性为动词,意为“影响”;“影响某人”用 influence sb.;“影响某人做某事”用
influence sb.to do sth.。)
1.在妈妈的影响下,我成为了一名老师。
My mother influenced me to be a teacher.
2.这场交通事故对他的日常生活造成了极大的影响。(两种表达方式)
This traffic accident has a great influence on his daily life.______ This traffic accident has influenced him a lot in his daily life.
八、require
①Success requires patience.成功需要耐心。
(要求某物/某事:require+名词。)
②Our headteacher requires us to go to bed early.我们校长要求我们早点上床睡觉。
(要求某人做某事:require sb.to do sth.。)
③She required that I (should) go there at once.她要求我立刻去那里。
(require+that 引导的从句,从句谓语动词用 should+动词原形,其中 should 可以省略。)
④This old computer requires__repairing right away.这台旧电脑需要立刻修理。
(require+doing,以主动形式表达被动语义,相当于 require to be done。)
九、辨析 proud 与 pride (九全册 Unit 4 P30)
①Our parents are always proud__of us.我们的父母总是为我们而骄傲。
(单词 proud“以……为骄傲”的短语:be proud of。)
②Today I am proud of my school,and tomorrow my school will take__pride__in my success.今天我为我的学校
骄傲,明天我的学校将为我的成功感到自豪。
(单词 pride“以……为骄傲”的短语:take pride in。)
十、no matter (九全册 Unit 5 P35)
No matter what you say,I can not agree with you.无论你说什么,我都不同意你的观点。
No matter when you are free,you can come here for a cup of coffee.无论你什么时候有空,你都可以来这儿喝杯咖啡。
(no matter what=whatever,意为“无论什么”;no matter when=whenever,意为“无论何时”。 no matter 意为
“无论”,与 what,who,which,how 等疑问词连用,引导让步状语从句。)
无论发生什么事,我都不会放弃。
No matter what happens,I will not give up.
十一、辨析 be known for/as/to
①An Xi and Hangzhou are widely known/famous for their tea.安溪和杭州因茶而闻名。
(“因……而出名”的短语:be known for=be famous for)
②Mo Yan is known/famous as a writer.莫言作为一名作家而闻名。
(“作为……而闻名”的短语:be known as=be famous as)
③Mr.Xi is known to people all over the world.习主席为全世界的人们所熟知。
(“为……知晓”的短语:be known/famous to)
宜宾因五粮液而闻名世界。
Yibin is known/famous for Wuliangye all over the world.
兰州以它美味的牛肉面而著名。
Lanzhou is __known/famous__ __for__ its delicious beef noodles.
十二、be made 的系列短语
①This kind of cup is made of paper.这种杯子是纸做的。
(be made of 意为“由……制成”,看得出原材料。)②This kind of wine is made from grapes.这种酒是葡萄酿的。
(be made from 意为“由……制成”,看不出原材料。)
③This kind of watch is made in Switzerland.这种表是瑞士造的。
(be made in 意为“在……制造”,介词 in+地点名词。)
④The machine was made by Jim.这台机器是由吉姆制作的。
(be made by 意为“由……制作”,介词 by 强调动作的发出者,常常为人。)
⑤Plastic can be made into many kinds of things.塑料可以被制成许多种东西。
(be made into 意为“被制作成……”,介词 into 后面常接被制成的事物/东西。)
⑥These chairs and desks were made for the poor students.这些桌椅是为贫困学生制作的。
(be made for 意为“为……而制造”,介词 for 后接所供给的对象。)
十三、It is said/reported/believed/known that 句型
该句型中,It 为形式主语,而 that 引导的从句才是真正的主语。
①It is said that Yao Ming is coming to Yibin for a charity event.据说姚明准备来宜宾做慈善活动。
(It is said that 意为“据说……”。)
②It is reported that over 20 people were killed in this accident.据报道,20 多个人死于这场事故。
(It is reported that 意为“据报道……”。)
③It is believed that our team will win the match.人们认为我们队将赢得这场比赛。
(It is believed that 意为“人们认为……”。)
④It is known that China is famous for the Great Wall.众所周知,中国因长城而闻名。
(It's (well) known that 意为“众所周知”。)人们认为中国是一个伟大的国家。
It's believed that China is a great country
十四、辨析 rise 与 raise
①She raised the gun and fired.她举枪射击。
We are raising money for charity.我们在进行慈善募捐。
I have never heard him raise his voice.我从来没有听到过他提高嗓门。
Have you ever raised a pet dog? 你曾经喂养过一只宠物狗吗?
(通过以上四个例句,我们可知 raise 为及物动词,意为“举起、募捐、提高、饲养等”;其过去式和过去分
词都为 raised。)
② She rose from the chair.她从椅子上站了起来。
The helicopter rose into the air.直升机飞上了天空。
Costs are always rising.成本总是在不断增加。
(通过以上三个例句,我们可知 rise 为不及物动词,表示人或物从下方向上方上升;过去式 rose,过去分词 risen。)
当我们正在升旗的时候,太阳升起来了。
When we are raising the flag,the sun is rising.
十五、辨析 my pleasure 与 with pleasure (九全册 Unit 6 P42)
①—Thank you very much!非常感谢!
—It's a pleasure./My pleasure./You're welcome.不用谢。
(my pleasure 是 it's my pleasure 的省略形式,相当于 it's a pleasure,用于回答别人的感谢,意为“ 不客气/不谢 ”。)②—Could you please help me look after my dog when I'm away?当我外出的时候,你可以帮我照看一下我的狗
吗?
—With pleasure.没问题。
(with pleasure 客气地表示接受或同意做某事,意为“好的;没问题;乐意效劳”。)
十六、allow
①My mother allows me to take the dog for a walk every weekend.我的妈妈允许我每周末遛狗。
(允许某人做某事: allow sb.to do sth.)
②Teenagers should not be allowed to smoke.青少年不应该被允许吸烟。
(某人(不)应该被允许做某事: sb.should__(not)__be__allowed__to__do__sth.)
十七、prevent
①They made these rules to prevent accidents.他们制定这些规则是为了防止事故的发生。
(prevent 为及物动词,其后常接名词或代词作宾语。)
②Nothing can prevent us from achieving our dreams.= Nothing can stop/keep us from achieving our dreams.没
有什么能阻止我们实现梦想。
(阻止/防止某人做某事:
Prevent sb.(from) doing sth.=stop sb.(from) doing sth.=keep sb.from doing sth.)
1.健康饮食能帮助我们预防疾病。
A healthy diet can help us prevent diseases.
2.我们必须防止孩子们吸烟,因为吸烟对他们的健康有害。
We must prevent/stop/keep children from smoking because it's bad for their health.十八、against
①Most people are against the plan.大多数人反对这个计划。
We're against cutting down too many trees.我们反对滥伐树木。
(be against(doing) sth.意为“ 反对(做)某事”。)
②It's raining heavily outside and the rain was beating against the window.外面雨下得很大,雨水敲打着窗户。
(此句中,against 意为“碰;撞”。)
③Our school basketball team is playing against a team from No.2 middle school.我们校篮球队正在与来自第二
中学的一支球队打比赛。
(此句中,play against 意为 “对抗;与……打比赛”。)
1.尽管他反对我的观点,但他没有提出自己的观点。
Although he was against my opinion,he didn't come up with his own.
十九、only 开头的倒装句
①Only then will__I have a chance to achieve my dream.只有那样,我才有机会实现我的梦想。
(其正常句序为: I will have a chance to achieve my dream only then.)
②Only when you leave school will__you realize the importance of study.只有当你离开学校时,你才会意识到学
习的重要性。
(其正常语序为:You will realize the importance of study only when you leave school.)
③Only Jack was absent from school yesterday.昨天只有杰克没来学校。
(注意在此句中,only 修饰的是主语 Jack,故不需要倒装。)
总结:当 only 位于句首,其后接副词、介词短语或状语从句时,句子要用部分倒装(助动词/be 动词/情态
动词+主语+其他)。
只有用这种方式,你才能理解你的父母挣钱多么困难。Only in this way can you understand how hard your parents make money.
二十、prefer
①I prefer pork to chicken.= I like pork better than chicken.相对于鸡肉而言,我更喜欢猪肉。
(prefer→过去式 preferred →过去分词 preferred ;prefer A to B,意为:相对于 B 而言,更喜欢 A。)
②He prefers riding a bike to driving.相对于开车,他更喜欢骑自行车。
(相对做某事而言,更喜欢做某事的结构为:prefer doing to doing。)
③I prefer to walk there rather than go by bus.我宁愿走路去那,而不愿乘公共汽车。
(宁愿做某事而不愿做某事的结构为:prefer__to__do__sth.rather__than__do__sth.。)
二十一、worth
①The picture is worth 1,000 dollars.这幅画值一千美元。
(主语+be+worth+价格,意为某物值多少钱。)
②Dangal (《摔跤吧!爸爸》)is an interesting Indian movie.It is worth seeing again.《摔跤吧!爸爸》是一部有
趣的印度电影。它值得再看一遍。
(主语+be+worth+doing,意为值得做某事。)
这辆二手空调最多值 1 千元。
This second-hand air-conditioner __is__ __worth__1,000 yuan at most.
二十二、辨析 except 与 besides
①All of us passed the exam except John.我们所有人都通过了考试,除了约翰.
(except 的意思为“除了……之外”,表示排除关系,即不包括在内。)②I have a few friends besides you.除你之外,我还有几位朋友。
(besides 的意思为“除了……之外,还有……”,表示叠加关系,即包括在内。)
二十三、suppose
We're supposed to study hard.=We should study hard.我们应该努力学习。(被期望/应该做某事的短语结构
为:be supposed to do sth.=should do sth.。)
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