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人教版八年级英语下册重点单词短语句型复习归纳全套

(作者 :changhe 日期:2019-05-15)
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人教版八年级英语下册重点单词短语句型复习归纳全套
(含1-10单元的单词短语句型精讲精练)
Unit 1
Section A
教学目标:掌握have, lie down, too much, expect等单词短语的用法
          掌握if引导的条件状语从句和Whats the matter?等句型的用法
词汇全解
1. have
have有“患(病)的意思”,表示“具有某种病症、症状”,常用“have a + 名词”。have a cold为固定用法,意为“感冒”,其中a不能用the来代替,也不能去掉,但翻译时不用译出。另外,have为实义动词,要随人称的变化而变化。
She has a toothache.
拓展
have a cold意为“感冒”,同义短语有:catch a cold, get a cold
类似短语有:have a fever 发烧  have a sore back 背痛  have a backache 背痛
have a stomachache 胃痛  have a cough 咳嗽  have a sore throat 咽喉痛
 
  • lie down
lie down 躺下
Don’t lie down on the ground.
拓展
与down有关的短语:
sit down  坐下   come down下来,下落   fall down 落下来  
get down下车   write down写下;记下
辨析:
lie  v.  躺;位于 lay(过去式),lain(过去分词),lying(现在分词) She should lie down.
lie  v. 说谎 lied(过去式),lied(过去分词),lying(现在分词) Don’t believe her! She’s lying.
lie  n. 谎言 lies(复数) He often tells lies.
 
  • too much
too much 用作副词词组,修饰动词或名词。意为“太多......;......得太多”。
It’s bad for your eyes to watch TV too much.
辨析 too much, too many与much too
 
too much
用作副词词组,意为“......得太多”,修饰动词
用作形容词词组,意为“太多”,修饰不可数名词
用作代词,意为“太多”,在句中做状语
too many 用作形容词词组,意为“太多”,修饰可数名词复数
much too 用作副词词组,意为“太”,修饰形容词或副词
There is too much noise in the market.
Too many people come to visit him every day.
The coat is much too dear. I can’t afford it.
 
  • expect
expect  vt. 期待,期盼;预期
expect的常见用法:expect + 名词/ 代词;expect + 复合宾语; expect + 从句。
I’m expecting Lucy’s letter.
I expect my mother to come back from work.
I expect that my mother will come back from Paris next week.
辨析:expect与look forward to
两者都有“期待”之意,expect指确信某事必将发生,确信某人必将会来而等待着,多用于好的事物,也可用于坏的事物。look forward to 是指以愉快的心情期待着。
I’m expecting Tom.
I’m looking forward to seeing Tom.
 
  • to one’s surprise
to one’s surprise意为“令人吃惊的是......”,其中surprise是名词,one’s是形容词性物主代词或所有格。to one’s surprise相当于“主语 + be + surprised”,其中surprised是形容词。
To his surprise, he found the girl was blind.
= He was surprised to find the girl was blind.
拓展
in surprise意为“吃惊地,惊奇地”,相当于副词性短语,用来修饰动词,一般放在所修饰的动词后面。
The two girls looked at each other in surprise.
be surprised at 意为“对......感到惊奇”,表示主语(人)对某事或某物感到惊奇,surprised 可以被very, too等修饰,做表语或定语。
We are very surprised at the news.
surprising 意为“令人惊奇的”,是形容词,含有主动的意思,做表语或定语,做表语时主语一般是物。
His surprising success made us feel surprised. 他出人意料的成功使我们感到惊奇。
 
  • agree to
agree to意为“同意做某事”。
She agreed to go shopping with me.
拓展
agree with sb. 意为“同意某人(的意见或观点)”。
I agree with you. 我同意你的看法。
agree on sth. 就某事达成一致。
We agreed on the question.
 
  • thanks to
thanks to意为“由于,因为;多亏”。通常表示由于某种原因才有了某种好的结果。在句中做状语,常位于句首,有时可与because of 或with the help of 进行转换。
Thanks to my teacher, I can finish the homework on time.
= With the help of my teacher, I can finish the homework on time.
Thanks to ( = Because of ) the bad weather, we had to put off our trip.
 
辨析:thanks to与thanks for
thanks to 意为“由于,因为;多亏” 并无当面感谢的意思,其后可接名词、代词或名词性短语 Thanks to these kind men, her son was saved.
 
thanks for 意为“因......而感谢” 后接感谢的原因,其后可接名词或动词-ing形式 Thanks for your help.
 
  • in time
in time意为“及时”
辨析: in time与on time
in time 意为“及时” 强调正好赶上事先约定的时间,没有迟到;其后可接for引导的介词短语,表示“正好赶上某事”
on time 意为“准时” 指按计划做某事,强调不迟到,不早不晚
 
We got to the bus station in time.
I am just in time for the plane.
Passengers get onto the plane on time.
 
习题演练
 
1. Nancy took her temperature and found she had a _______.
  • cough   B. toothache   C. cold   D. fever
  • I found a letter _______ on the floor when I came into the classroom.
  • lying   B. lay   C. lie   D. lies
  • ---- The meat is _______ delicious.
   ---- Yes, but don’t eat _______.
  • too much; too much
  • much too; too much
  • too much; much too
  • much too; much too
  • ---- Do you think Brazil will beat Japan?
   ---- Yes. They have better players. So I _______ them to win.
  • hope   B. prefer   C. expect   D. want
  • ---- How was your life in England?
   ---- Quite different form here. _______, people there drink tea with milk.
  • In my opinion   B. To my surprise   C. At the beginning
  • He told his parents his ideas about the camping several times, and they _______ (同意)with him at last. (补全句子)
  • Thanks _______ Mr. Hu, we have learnt many English songs.
  • for   B. at   c. to
  • ---- Hurry up. It’s almost time for school.
   ---- Don’t worry. We are sure to be at school _______.
  • at times   B. on time   C. all the time   D. by the time
 
句式剖析
1. What’s the matter?
此句常用来询问别人的病情。类似的句子有:What’s wrong with you? / What’s the trouble? / What’s your trouble? / What’s the matter with you?
拓展
matter用作动词,意为“要紧;有关系”,主要用于疑问句和否定句。
It doesn’t matter.一般用来回答对方的道歉,意为“没关系,不要紧”。表示这一意思时,还可以说“That’s OK / All right / That’s all right.”等。“It doesn’t matter.”的主语必须用it, 不能用人称代词I, you, he , she 等。
matter用作名词,意为“要紧的事;问题;情况”等。
 
考点提炼:What’s the matter?的相关用法
 
  • If your head and neck still hurt tomorrow, then go to a doctor.
本句是含有条件状语从句的复合句,主句是 then to to a doctor, 从句是if your head and neck still hurt tomorrow, if 是连词,意为“如果,假如”,引导条件状语从句。
拓展
if 引导条件状语从句时,如果主句是一般将来时,从句要用一般现在时,可以简单记为“主将从现”。
We will go shopping if we are free tomorrow.
 
考点提炼:if引导的条件状语从句
 
  • He got off and asked the woman what happened.
本句中what 引导的what happened是宾语从句,做动词asked的宾语。宾语从句的语序使用陈述语序。
I don’t know what I should do next.
get off意为“下车”,反义短语为get on 上车。
Please don’t get off until the bus stops.
 
考点提炼:what引导的宾语从句
 
习题演练
1. ---- _______?
   ---- I have a headache and I don’t feel lie eating anything.
  • How are you
  • What can I do for you
  • What’s the matter with you
  • How do you like it
  • Learning to write is learning to think. You will know things more clearly _______ you write them down.
  • or   B. unless   C. if   D. whether
  • ---- Do you know _______?
   ---- Perhaps tomorrow, but I’m not sure.
  • how we’ll go to the museum
  • which place we’ll visit next Sunday
  • when we will travel to Disneyland
  • why he won’t come here
  • ---- What kind of persons do you prefer to make friends with?
   ---- I choose my friends on their characters and how we _______.
  • get in    B. get up    C. get on    D. get off
 
基础水平考试
一、根据句意及首字母提示完成句子
1. We are tired. So we are going to l_______ down and have a rest.
2. ---- I have a t_______ and I can’t eat any food.
   ---- Maybe you should see a dentist.
  • She got into t______ and needed help. So she asked the teacher for help.
  • As students we s_______ study hard.
  • T_______ to be teacher, I improved my English soon.
  • 根据汉语意思完成句子
  • 你可以躺下休息一会儿。
   You may _______  _______ and _______ for a while.
  • 你想和加蜂蜜的热茶吗?
   Would you like _______  _______  _______ honey?
  • 多亏你的帮助,我通过了考试
   _______  ________ your help, I passed the exam.
  • 令我们惊讶的是,她今天早上迟到了。
   _______  _______  _______ , she was late this morning.
  • 没有人想陷入困境。
   Nobody wants to _______  _______  _______.
 
中考水平测评
一、单项填空
1. Annie has a _______, and she is going to see her dentist today.
  • cold   B. fever   C. cough   D. toothache
  • _______ we keep our hearts open, we can experience the happiness friendship brings us.
  • Since   B. If   C. Unless   D. Though
  • ---- You look really tired. _______ ?
   ---- I didn’t sleep well last night. I had a headache.
  • How about you
  • What should I do
  • What’s the matter
  • How are you feeling now
  • Our world will get better and better _______ each of us lives a greener life.
  • before    B. if    C. though    D. until
  • I saw some boy students _______ basketball when I passed the playground.
  • played   B. plays   C. playing   D. to play
  • 阅读理解
Roald Dahl was one of the most successful writes of children’s books. He sold millions of books all over the world. Many of his books have been made into films and videos. He is so famous that there is even a Roald Dahl Museum you can visit.
Roald Dahl was born in 1961 in Wales, Britain . His father was rich but he died when Roald was very young. Roald and his mother lived a hard life. He had to leave school and went to Africa where he worked for an oil company.
In 1939, Roald became a pilot, but he had a bad accident. It made him limp(瘸的)for the rest of his life. After this, Roald went to America where he wrote a story about his experience as a pilot. It was so good that it was put in a magazine.
Roald married an American film star. They bought a house in England and had five children. From 1960 to 1965, _______ : Theo, one of his children, was hit by a taxi and was seriously hurt. Olivia, one of Roald’s daughters, died of a strange illness. Soon after this, his wife also had a serious illness. It took her years to get completely better.
Gradually Roald became more and more successful. He always did his writing in an old shed(棚)at the back of his house. He always sat in the same old armchair with a wooden board on his lap.
“One of the nice things about being a writer,”he once said,“is that all you need is what youve got in your head and a pencil and a bit of paper.”
1983 Roald won a big prize for his book The BFC. During his life, Roald wrote many famous books, such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Matilda, Fantastic Mr. Fox.
After he died in 1990, Roald left money to help people with serious illnesses and those with problems with reading and writing.
  • Roald Dahl was famous as a ( an ) _______.
  • doctor   B. teacher   C. actor   D. writer
  • After Roald went to America, he _______.
  • lost his parents in a plane accident
  • wrote a story about his pilot experience
  • got married to an English film star
  • won a big prize for his book Matilda
  • Which of the following is the best for the blank in Paragraph 4?
  • they lived a happy life
  • three terrible things happened
  • he went on writing books
  • he created some unlucky characters
  • What Roald said in Paragraph 6 mainly shows that _______.
  • being a writer was a popular job at that time
  • one needs to practice a lot if he wants to be a writer
  • Roald loved writing very much and was talented in it
  • though he was successful, Roal lived a simple life
 
答案:
习题演练:
1-5 DABCB  6. agreed  7. C  8. B
习题演练:
1-4 CCCC
基础水平考试
1. lie  2. toothache  3. trouble  4. should  5. Thanks  6. lie down; rest  7. hot tea with  8. Thanks to  9. To our surprise  10. get into trouble
中考水平测评
1-5 DBCBC  6-9 DBBC
 
Unit 1
Section B
教学目标:掌握hit, fall down, problem, risk等单词短语的用法
          掌握who引导的定语从句和so that引导的状语从句等句型用法
词汇全解
1. hit
hit用作动词,意为“(用手或器具)击,打”,其过去式为hit。hit on the head意为“打头”。“打某人的某个部位”使用“动词 + sb. + 介词 + the + 身体部位名词”结构。in 用于涉及身体表面较软或较空的部位;on用于身体较硬的部位。
hit sb. in the face  ( eye, mouth, stomach, etc. )
hit sb. on the head  ( nose, back, chest, etc. )
注意:
动词pat, beat, strike, touch, take, catch等也可以用于“动词 + sb. + 介词 + the + 身体部位名词”的结构中的。
 
  • fall down
fall down意为“倒下;掉落;跌倒”,为不及物动词短语,后接宾语时应加上介词from。fall down from sth.相当于fall off sth.,意为“从......跌落下来”。
The old lady fell down in the street and broke her leg.
He fell down from his bike and hurt badly.
= He fell off his bike and hurt badly.
拓展
fall into 落入;陷入   fall off 跌落;摔下   fall over 绊倒   fall ill 病了
fall behind 落后   fall asleep 进入梦乡;睡着
 
  • problem
problem用作名词,意为“问题,困难”。have problems ( in ) doing sth. 意为“做某事有困难或麻烦”,相当于get into trouble doing sth.。
I have problems ( in ) learning English.
 
  • breathe
breathe为动词,意为“呼吸”。
He was breathing hard when he finished the race. 完成比赛后,他费力地喘着气。
拓展
breathe 的名词形式为breath,意为“呼吸”。其构成的常见短语有:
take a deep breath 深呼吸     hold one’s breath屏住呼吸
 
  • be used to doing sth.
be used to doing sth. 是固定搭配,意为“习惯于做某事”。
辨析:used to do sth. 与 be used to sth./ doing sth.
( 1 ) used to do sth. 意为“过去常常......,过去经常......”,表示过去经常发生的动作。
I used to go to the park when I was young.
( 2 ) be used to sth. / doing sth. 意为“习惯于某事/ 做某事”,表示一种状态,可用于现在、过去、将来等多种时态。其中to为介词,后面接名词、代词或动名词;be动词可用get或become 来代替,指的是从不习惯到习惯这一过程的转变。
I wasn’t used to city life, but now I have got used to living in this city.
 
  • take risks
take risks意为“冒险”,其中risk是名词,表示“危险,风险”。“冒险”也可以表达为take a risk。
拓展
( 1 ) risk还可以用作动词,意为“冒险”,后接名词或动名词。
He risked his life to save her.
( 2 ) risk 相关的短语:
at the risk of doing sth. 冒着做某事的危险   at risk 在危险中
 
  • get out of
get out of 离开;逃出来
get out of 的反义短语为 get into (陷入......中),二者皆无被动语态。
Luckily, she got out of the big fire.
We often get into trouble when we’re learning a foreign language.
 
  • importance
importance是名词,意为“重要;重要性”。
He emphasized the importance of careful driving.
拓展
important  adj. 重要的    unimportant  adj. 不重要的
常见以t结尾的形容词变t为-ce构成名词的有:
different→difference
confident→confidence
patient→patience
 
  • decision
decision是名词,意为“决定,抉择”。make a decision相当于decide,表示“做出决定”。
We made a decision to go there on foot.
 
  • in control of
in control of 意为“控制;管理”。
To make people happy, you have to let them feel like they are in control of their environment.
in control of的反义短语为 out of control(失去控制)。
The noise frightened the horse and it got out of control.
 
  • give up
give up后面一般接名词、代词或动名词做宾语。
We will give up this journey.
You shouldn’t give up learning English.
拓展
give in 屈服,投降   give back 归还   give away 泄露;赠送
give out 分发    give off 发出(光、气味等) give sb. a hand 帮某人的忙
 
  • keep on doing
keep on doing sth. 表示“重复而不厌其烦地做某事”。
Don’t keep on asking such foolish questions.
辨析:keep on doing sth. 和keep doing sth.
keep on doing sth. 更加强调时间的间隔性和动作的反复性及某人做某事的决心,常与表示短暂动作的动词连用
keep doing sth. 若表示某一连续不断的动作、某一动作的持续状态及今后或将来继续做某事时,只宜用keep doing sth.
 
Although it was late, she kept on working.
They kept standing outside the room during the meeting.
 
习题演练:
1. ---- What’s wrong with Simon? He isn’t at school today.
   ---- His legs hurt. He was _______ by a motorcycle this morning.
  • treated   B. hit   C. operated   D. cured
  • ---- What’s wrong with Tom?
   ---- Bad luck! Tom _______ his bike and hurt his leg.
  • fell   B. fell of   C. dropped   D. drop off
  • I am new here, so I get into _______ remembering all of your names.
  • matter   B. trouble   C. question   D. problem
  • 单句语法填空
   We usually have problems _______ ( breathe ) after heavy work.
  • I used to _______ newspapers and watch TV after dinner. But now I’m used to _______ a walk.
  • read; take   B. read; taking   C. reading; taking   D. reading; take
  • 单句写作
   But fear is not an option, so you should be willing to _______  _______ (承担风险).
  • Watch your step when _______ the bus.
  • getting up  B. getting out of  C. getting on  D. getting down
  • 单句写作
   Students should know the _______ (重要)of learning English.
  • Tom made a _______ to improve his English.
  • spirit   B. action   C. decision   D. reason
  • ---- Dear, you need to _______ by next week, to go to university at home or go abroad. You are going on eighteen.
   ---- OK, Mum. I am considering it.
  • make an appointment   B. make a suggestion   C. make a decision
  • The car was out of _______ and hit a tree by the road.
  • danger   B. breath   C. control   D. practice
  • ---- Song Joong-ki is a movie star in Asia now.
   ---- That’s true. He was once an excellent skater but had to _______ skating because of an accident.
  • give up   B. go on   C. take up
  • The girl kept on _______ up to look at the blackboard.
  • standing   B. to stand   C. stand   D. to standing
 
句式剖析
1. Aron Ralston is an American man who is interested in mountain climbing.
本句中的“who is interested in mountain climbing”是定语从句,修饰先行词man,who在定语从句中做主语,此时who可以用that来代替。
He is the man who jumped into the river and saved the two children.
 
考点提炼:who引导的定语从句
 
  • There were many times when Aron almost lost his life because of accidents.
本句中的“when Aron almost lost his life because of accidents”是when引导的定语从句,修饰先行词times,关系副词when在从句中做时间状语。
I will never forget the days when we worked together.
 
考点提炼:when 引导的定语从句
辨析:because of 与because
二者都可以译为“因为”,其区别为:
because of 介词短语 后接名词、代词或动名词 I didn’t go because of the rain.
because 连词 引导原因状语从句 He didn’t come to school because he was ill.
 
  • On April 26, 2003, he found himself in a very dangerous situation when climbing in Utah.
( 1 ) 句中包含“find + 宾语 + 宾语补足语”结构,此处宾语补足语是介词in a very dangerous situation。此结构可分为以下几种:
? find + 宾语 + 形容词(宾语补足语)
We found him dishonest.
‚ find + 宾语 + 动词-ing形式(宾语补足语)
We found him working.
ƒ find + 宾语 + 副词或介词短语(宾语补足语)
I am so glad to fine you in home.
( 2 ) when climbing in Utah为“when +现在分词短语”结构,相当于一个由when 引导的时间状语从句,即when he was climbing in Utah。
I saw him playing basketball when passing by the playground.
= I saw him playing basketball when I was passing by the playground.
 
考点提炼:“find + 宾语 + 宾语补足语”结构和when引导的时间状语从句
 
  • On that day, Aron’s arm was caught under a 360-kilo rock that fell on him when he was climbing by himself in the mountains.
句式剖析
( 1 ) 句中的“was caught”是一般过去时的被动语态,Aron’s arm与caught存在被动关系。一般过去时的被动语态结构为“was/ were + 动词的过去分词”。
Many trees were planted last year.
( 2 ) 句中的“that fell on him”是that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词“a 360-kilo rock”,先行词指物,关系代词可以使用that或which,that在句中做主语,不可以省略。
All that is needed is a supply of oil.
 
考点提炼:一般过去时的被动结构
 
  • Then, with his left arm, he bandaged himself so that he would not lose too much blood.
so that引导目的状语从句时,意为“以便,为了”,与in order that是同义短语,从句中常用can, could, may, might, will, would, should等情态动词。so that还可以引导结果状语从句,意为“因此,所以”。
I spend more time learning English every day so that I can make greater progress this year.
She got up late so that she missed the early bus.’
 
考点提炼:so that引导的目的状语从句
 
  • His love for mountain climbing is so great that he kept on climbing mountains even after this experience.
so...that...引导结果状语从句,意为“如此......以至于”。so为副词,修饰形容词或副词;that后跟从句。其句型结构主要有:
so + adj. / adv. + that
so + adj. ( + a / an ) + n. +that
so + many / much /few / little + n. + that
His son is so tall a man that he almost reaches the ceiling.
Kate had so many falls that she was black and blue all over.
 
考点提炼:so...that...引导的结果状语从句
归纳拓展
so...that...句型可以与...enough to...句型和too...to...句型进行同义转换。
( 1 ) that 后面是肯定句:
The girl is so old that she can go to school.
= The girl is old enough to go to school.
( 2 ) that后面是否定句:
Jim was so angry that he couldn’t say a word.
= Jim was too angry to say a word.
 
习题演练:
1. The woman _______ is singing on the TV show is our English teacher.
  • who   B. which   C. whose
  • I remember the days _______ I worked in this factory.
  • when   B. that   C. which   D. where
  • Tom didn’t go hiking with his classmates _______ his illness.
  • because   B. because of    C. since
  • His parents found _______ to tell him everything that had happened.
  • it necessary   B. that necessary   C. its necessary   D. necessary
  • The mobile phone has influenced people’s a lot since it _______.
  • invents   B. invented   C. is invented    D. was invented
  • ---- I’d like to read some Chinese classics. Any suggestion?
   ---- Journey to the West. It’s a book _______ is about Monkey King.
  • what   B. who   C. that
  • I looked through my test paper again and again _______ I wouldn’t make any mistakes.
  • so   B. because   C. so that
  • Huangguoshu Waterfall is ______ beautiful that I want to come here again next year.
  • so   B. too   C. such   
  • The book is _______ interesting _______ I can’t put it down.
  • so; that   B. such ; that   C. too; to    D. very; that
 
基础水平考试
一、根据句意及首字母提示完成句子
1. What you said yesterday s_______ me. Is that true?
2. Nancy is a doctor and she works in the First People’s H_______.
3. She made a d_______ to go abroad.
4. She said she would never forget some pleasure e_______ while working there.
5. Ben r_______ out of his money by Saturday.
  • 单句语法填空
  • Have you got used to _______ ( ride ) a bike to school?
  • We’re trying _______ ( save ) the sick boy.
  • “Help _______ ( you ) to some fish.” Mom said to my friends.
  • Keep on ______ ( try ), and you’ll succeed one day.
  • She decided to give up _______ ( play ) volleyball.
 
中考水平测评
一、单项填空
1. She realized she was wrong and _______ the argument.
  • cheered up   B. put up   C. took up   D. gave up
  • When the baby dog _______ , it was very hungry. So we gave it some food.
  • is found   B. was found   C. has been found   D. will be found
  • ---- You like to drink coffee, don’t you?
   ---- Yes. But I’m _______ drinking tea, too.
  • able to    B. similar to    C. used to     D. ready to
  • He felt ______ surprised that he couldn’t say a word with his mouth wide open.
  • very   B. such   C. so     D. too
  • David Beckham decided to give up _______ football matches forever because he is not energetic enough.
  • play   B. playing   C. to play    D. played
  • Many people _______ all the money to buy a house in big cities.
  • give out   B. run out   C. give out of    D. run out of
  • 语法填空
阅读下面短文,用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空,必要时可加助动词或情态动词。
Lisa Hawkins love riding her BMX bike(极限单车)and her dream is to go to the Olympics. Lisa first got interested in BMX racing at the age of ten. Once she hired a bike for a pound and immediately _______ ( 7 ) (fall) in love with the sport. “It was the best pound I ever spent,” she says. Lisa is only 16 but she _______ ( 8 ) already _______ ( 8 ) (have) lots success, and got first prize in a world BMX competition last year. BMX racing is quite a dangerous sport. But this didn’t stop her _______ ( 9 )(want) to do more competition. Lisa exercises every day. Like many sports people, she _______ ( 10 )(believe) in luck as well as hard work.
 
  • _______  8. _______  _______ 9. _______  10. _______
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
答案:
习题演练:
1-3 BBB   4. ( in ) breathing  5.B  6. take risks  7. C  8. importance   9-13 CCCAA
习题演练:
1-5 AABAD   6-9 CCAA
基础水平考试
1. surprised  2. Hospital  3. decision  4. experiences  5. ran  6. riding  7. to save  8. yourselves  9. trying  10. playing
中考水平测评
1-6 DBCCBD
7. fell  8. has; had   9. wanting  10. believes
 
Unit 2
Section A
教学目标:掌握outside, clean up, cheer up, give out, volunteer, come up with, put off, try out等单词短语用法
     掌握“how + 不定式的复合结构;what引导的宾语从句”等重要句型用法
词汇全解
1. outside
outside用作副词,意为“在外面”,做地点状语,相当于outdoors。
Just wait outside!
拓展
outside还可用作介词、形容词及名词
Let’s meet outside the school gate.
The outside wall is painted red.
The hotel looked attractive from the outside.
 
  • clean up
clean up彻底打扫,清理,为动副结构的动词短语。
The writer hurried to clean up the pieces of the broken plates.
The reading room is dirty, and you should clean it up.
拓展
clean up 用作名词短语,意为“大扫除”。
The Clean Up Day always falls on Friday in our school.
 
  • Cheer up
cheer up意为“(使)变得高兴;振作起来”,是“动词+副词”结构的短语。cheer up既可做及物动词短语,也可以做不及物动词短语。人称代词做宾语时,必须放在cheer与up之间。
He cheered up at once when I agreed to help him.
He took her to the cinema to cheer her up.
 
  • give out
give out意为“散发;分发”,相当于hand out,是“动词+副词”结构的短语。
Can you give the drinks out, please?
拓展
give out 的其他含义:
( 1 ) 意为“发出(光、热、声音、气味等)”。
The sun gives out light and heat.
( 2 ) 意为“用完,耗尽”。
Our supplies are giving out. 我们的补给要用完了。
 
  • volunteer
volunteer用作动词,意为“自愿(做某事)”,常构成短语volunteer to do sth.和volunteer for sth. 意为“自愿做某事”。
The volunteered to help the poor students.
拓展
volunteer用作名词,意为“志愿者”;用作形容词,意为“自愿的,志愿的”。
Being a volunteer is great.
They did a volunteer job.
 
  • come up with
come up with意为“相出,提出(主意、计划、回答等)”,相当于think up。
Can’t you come up with a better idea?
拓展
come 的其他常用短语有:
come over 过来;顺便拜访,拜访
come in 进来
come on 快点儿;加油
come out 出来;开花;(书等)出版
come up 走近,走上前来
 
  • put off
put off意为“推迟”,是“动词+副词”结构的短语,其后可跟名词、代词、或动词-ing形式做宾语。
They put off the match because of the heavy rain.
Please don’t put off doing your homework.
拓展
put的常用短语还有:
put up 张贴      put into输入   put up张贴;搭建;举起
put out熄灭      put down放下  put one’s heart into 全神贯注于
put on穿上;上演;发胖    put away收起来;放好
 
  • decide to do sth.
decide to do sth.意为“决定做某事”,其否定形式是在to 前加not。
She decided not to go there again.
拓展
与decide相关的结构:decide + that 从句    决定......
decide + 疑问词+ to do sth. 决定......做某事
decide on sb. to do sth. 决定让某人做某事
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